(The initial translation table for a translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not involve explicit use of the table designator. However, in cases where it is necessary to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, the designator for the table being switched to is required; see the general description of the [lnb~...] command for further details.)
The Urdu tables support print-to-braille translation of Urdu-language literary text into uncontracted Urdu braille. Any of the scripts generally used in India and surrounding regions (Arabic [including Sindhi], Bengali, Devanagari, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Myanmar, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil or Telegu) may be used. Urdu is usually written in Arabic Script. Roman script will generally be transcribed as in uncontracted English.
Although DBT Win 11.1 and later are able to display accented letter combinations and many non-Roman scripts, it is nevertheless often more convenient to use Microsoft Word for entering and editing print text, which can then be imported into DBT for subsequent translation. When preparing the text in Word, be sure to use a Unicode font (such as Lucida Sans or the default Times Roman), so that the underlying characters are encoded in Unicode. (Note that the appearance on screen is not the issue. Fonts that merely cause standard ASCII characters to be displayed as the desired accented or non-Roman letters will not work, because they will be imported according to their standard interpretation, not their appearance.)
True braille-to-print translation is not supported. This means that it is not generally useful to translate an Urdu braille file to print. It also means that the "translated line" will typically contain gibberish when viewing the braille file. You may prefer to turn off the "translated line" under the View menu, or even under Global/Default if you wish it to be off by default.
Roman script will generally be transcribed as in uncontracted English.
There are no secondary languages supported within the Urdu table itself; however it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)
No specific technical braille codes are supported directly within the Urdu table itself. Technical (mathematics, computer, or scientific) notation is generally transcribed as in Unified English Braille (UEB) or one of the other English codes. It is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...] code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.
The following DBT translation codes are available when using the Urdu table. Codes related to the entry of type forms, mathematics, etc. as in the English/Unified (UEB) tables may also be used and will in most instances be treated as in UEB or one of the other English codes. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. If using an alternative translation table, i.e when switching to another base language table by means of the [lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.
[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)
The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:
All ASCII printable characters
Letters and punctuation marks from any Indic script (Bengali, Devanagari, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil or Telegu), Arabic (including Sindhi), or Myanmar.
The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).
These tables were implemented by Duxbury Systems, Inc. in April 2008, initially based upon the document entitled "World Braille Usage," a joint publication of UNESCO and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Washington, D.C. (1990), and also information posted on websites maintained by the organizations Acharya (IIT Madras) and Baraha (a developer of software for Indian script editing) in India.
Duxbury Systems is grateful to Mr. Dipendra Manocha, Mr. J. L. Kaul, and their colleagues in India who have helped us greatly by expanding upon that original information, conducting tests, and providing feedback.
(Documentation reviewed June 2010)