INGUSHETIA Russian Flag Ingushetia flag

TABLE DESIGNATOR

inh

This page describes the internal functioning of the respective DBT translation table. If you want more information about languages, scripts, and template choices, please click here.

The initial language table for a translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not involve explicit use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY

The INGUSHETIA tables support print-to-braille translation of INGUSHETIA-language literary text written in the Cyrillic alphabet. While similar to Russian, there are in fact 5 different braille characters.

They are intended primarily for use in conjunction with Microsoft Word, or equivalent external facilities for composing and editing the print text that can then be imported into the Duxbury Braille Translator (DBT) for conversion into braille. English text may also be processed as a sub-language, and converted to contracted or uncontracted English braille (generally following British conventions in those minor instances where they differ from American ones). French, Bulgarian, Kazakh and Ukrainian may also be processed as sub-languages.

BRAILLE to PRINT (also known as Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However Braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore errors could occur. If you find any errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: languages@duxsys.com (Please be sure to include sample files).

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITATIONS

Even though DBT from version 10.5 onward can display Cyrillic and Arabic characters, it is usually more convenient to use an external word processor to compose and edit the print text that is to be translated. When doing so, is necessary to use a facility that encodes the text in Unicode so that it can be imported correctly to DBT. (Some methods of entering Cyrillic rely upon a variant "font" to display standard ASCII characters as Cyrillic. Those methods cannot be used, as those ASCII characters would be imported according to their standard interpretation, not as Cyrillic characters.)

Microsoft Word, properly used, fulfills the above requirements. Use the Lucida Sans Unicode font, or equivalent Unicode font, and a INGUSHETIA (or Cyrillic or Arabic) keyboard, when entering the INGUSHETIA text.

SECONDARY LANGUAGES SUPPORTED

English text may be entered as a secondary language, and converted to uncontracted English braille.

French language text may be entered; it is brailled as uncontracted French braille, including the dots 46 capital indicator.

Bulgarian, Kazakh and Ukrainian language may also be entered; they are brailled in the same way as INGUSHETIA.

Note that in addition to the above-listed "secondary languages" supported within the INGUSHETIA table itself, it is also possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)

TECHNICAL BRAILLE CODES SUPPORTED

No technical codes are supported.

However, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.

SUPPORTED DBT TRANSLATION CODES

The following DBT translation codes are available when using the INGUSHETIA table. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. If using an alternative translation table, i.e when switching to another base language table by means of the[lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.

[/] may be embedded within letter-groups that would normally be contracted, to prevent the contraction.

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]

[ahy] or [ahy1]turns on automatic hyphenation of the braille (which is initial and default condition)

[ah0]turns off automatic hyphenation of the braille

[fte~b]

[fte~i]

[fte~u]

[fts~b]

[fts~i]

[fts~u]

[cz]

[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille. This does not have any effect in this table, as all braille is uncontracted anyway.

[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille. This is the normal mode, but actually has no effect as INGUSHETIA and all secondary languages are are always transcribed uncontracted.

[in] is equivalent to [g1]

[lnb]

[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng~bg] switches to Bulgarian language.

[lng~en] switches to English language.

[lng~fr] switches to French language.

[lng~kk] or [lng] switches to Kazakh language.

[lng~ru] switches to INGUSHETIA language.

[lng~uk] switches to Ukrainian language.

[tx] resumes normal translation, ending "direct braille."

[vrn] cancels [vrn~spc], restoring the normal suppression of spaces after commas and semicolons.

[vrn~spc]preserves the spaces following commas and semicolons, which by default are removed in INGUSHETIA braille.

[vrn] cancels the effect of [vrn~tyfs], restoring the normal treatment of typeform boundaries.

[vrn~tyfs] establishes "strict" indication of the extent (boundaries) of a typeform. Normally, ordinary punctuation that follows a word is considered to be joined to the word for purposes of typeform indication regardless of whether an [fte~...] comes before or after it. For example, " [fts~b]word[fte~b]!" is normally translated as if it were "[fts~b]word![fte~b]". However, for this example with [vrn~tyfs] in effect, the bold face would be formally terminated before the exclamation mark. {As of DBT 12.2}

CHARACTERS SUPPORTED

The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, and Spanish

British pound sign (£)

Cyrillic unaccented and/or Arabic characters as needed for the supported languages.

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).

REFERENCES, HISTORY AND CREDITS

These tables were originally based upon the information given for Kazakh, Russian and the other supported languages in "World Braille Usage," a joint publication of UNESCO and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Washington, D.C. (1990). According to that publication, contractions are not used in Russian braille and so these tables should produce braille that is normal for that country.

Information from a braille use in Ingushetia was incorporated into this table.

(Documentation reviewed: January 2014.)