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This page describes the internal functioning of the respective DBT translation table. If you want more information about languages, scripts, and template choices, please click here.

The initial language table for a translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not involve explicit use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.


The Biblical Original Language Studies tables support print-to-braille translation of English-language, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Syriac and Coptic, European languages, in a manner designed to support the needs of braille-reading biblical scholars. This table is a work in progress. Those wishing to participate should contact

The functional summary of what this table does is best found by following this external link.

The handling of Roman script text follows the specifications of Unified English Braille (UEB or UEBC, also formerly known as UBC) that was developed by the International Council on English Braille (ICEB) from 1992 to 2004 and that has been maintained by that body since then. In early April 2004, the ICEB General Assembly declared that UEBC was sufficiently complete and ready for possible adoption by the ICEB's constituent national authorities.

Braille to Print (a.k.a., Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is not supported for this table.


The DBT translation codes may or may not be supported in the same way that they are supported in the English/Unified table. Users can test whether these codes work.


The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese

Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac and Coptic scripts

British pound, Japanese yen, Euro, and other miscellaneous signs (DUSCI pages D+ec..., D+ed..., D+ee..., D+f5...)


The earliest versions of this table were created in 2014 by mixing the translation tables for English/Unified with Arabic, Greek, and Hebrew tables. A table for Syriac and Coptic was added based on the work of a committee described below.

This committee (listed in alphabetic order) consisted of:

  • David Holladay (Duxbury Systems)
    Sarah Blake LaRose (blind biblical scholar)
    Ray McAllister (blind biblical scholar)
    Caryn Navy (Duxbury Systems)
    Matthew Yeater (blind biblical scholar)
  • Since so much of this work is new, we all wanted to form a committee that could work together on this common goal. We should acknowledge the role of Matthew Yeater for initiating this work when he needed a braille translation table specially crafted to handle "Critical Analysis" notation (Nestle-Aland notation). Everyone in the committee wishes to thank Duxbury Systems their help in producing this tool for the blind biblical scholar.

    (Documentation reviewed: March 2015)