FINNISH (Uncontracted) Finnish Flag



This page describes the internal functioning of the respective DBT translation table. If you want more information about languages, scripts, and template choices, please click here.

The initial language table for a translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not involve explicit use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

2014 NOTE: The Finnish Template has been modified to produce a blank line between paragraphs.

The Finnish Uncontracted tables support print-to-braille translation of Finnish-language literary text in grade 1 (uncontracted) braille only.

Automatic hyphenation of the braille (that is, automatic introduction of assisted-hyphenation codes during the translation to braille) is supported by default, though it can be turned on and off by translation codes.

BRAILLE to PRINT (also known as Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However Braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore errors could occur. If you find any errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: (Please be sure to include sample files).


There are no special requirements or limitations.


No secondary languages are supported.

Note that while no "secondary languages" are supported within the Finnish table itself, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)


No technical codes are supported.

However, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.


The following DBT translation codes are available when using the Finnish table. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. If using an alternative translation table, i.e when switching to another base language table by means of the[lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.

[/] -- ignored

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]

[ahy] or [ahy1]turns on automatic hyphenation of the braille (which is initial and default condition)

[ah0]turns off automatic hyphenation of the braille.


[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille (which is always in effect anyway).

[g2] is allowed but ignored with this table.

[in] is equivalent to [g1]


[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng...] -- ignored.



The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, and Finnish.

British pound sign

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).


These tables were developed by Duxbury Systems, Inc. The original September 1997 version was based upon the information given for Finnish in "World Braille Usage," a joint publication of UNESCO and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Washington, D.C. (1990). They were updated in May 2002 per later information provided by Marja-Leena Kartovaara of the Finnish Library for the Visually Impaired.

Duxbury Systems is also grateful to Mr. Reijo Juntunen of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired for further clarifications and in particular for providing rules for Finnish braille hyphenation.

(Documentation reviewed: January 2014.)