French, Quebec (pre-1996) Canadian FlagQuebec flag

Table Designator


This is the technical description of a DBT Translation table. If you want more general information about languages and template choices, please see the list of templates.

Initially, the language table for braille translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not require use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

Functional Summary

The French/Quebec tables support print-to-braille translation of French-language literary text, following the French Braille Code as formerly defined by the Ministry of Education in Quebec, Canada, prior to 1996. That code differed slightly slightly from the then-current French code as defined by the Association Valentin Hauy (AVH), Paris and also from the newer Unified French Code. The American Computer Braille Code (CBC) is also supported.

Braille to Print (Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However, braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore beware that errors can occur. If you find errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: Please be sure to include sample files!

Special Requirements and Limitations

See "References, History and Credits" below regarding the maintenance history of this table. Because there were changes to Quebecois French braille in 1996 that may or may not have been incorporated, this table should not be regarded as representative of the code in use after 1996 and prior to the adoption of Unified French.

True braille-to-print translation is supported within French text, but it is based upon the AVH system and so may not always correspond as expected.

Secondary Languages Supported

No secondary languages are presently supported.

Note however that it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)

Technical Braille Codes Supported

The American Computer Braille Code (CBC) is supported.

It is also possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.

Supported DBT Translation Codes

The following DBT translation codes are available when using the French/Quebec table. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. If using an alternative translation table, i.e when switching to another base language table by means of the[lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.


[ab] is equivalent to [g2]
































[in] is equivalent to [g1]


[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng] -- ignored.

[tx] cancels "CBC" (computer braille -- see [cb] etc.) or "no translate" (see [cz]), reverting to ordinary text.

[txi] terminates CBC with indicator.

[txn] is like [tx]) except that no indicator is generated.

Characters Supported

The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, and Spanish

British pound and other miscellaneous signs (DUSCI page D+ee...)

Mathematical signs, shapes, etc. (in "technical context" only) (DUSCI pages D+e2..., D+e5..., D+ef..., D+f0..., D+f1...)

Note that, for historical reasons and subject to change in future versions, certain printable characters are reserved for "forcing" symbols and indicators, namely:

D+9b (cent sign): indicator for start of continuous (multi-word) capitals

D+9d (yen sign): indicator for one word in full capitals D+9f (small script f with hook): indicator for last word in continuous (multi-word) capitals D+f9 (middle dot): forces "abbreviation point" instead of full stop

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).

References, History and Credits

The development of Duxbury's original French tables, upon which these are based, commenced in March 1987, under the sponsorship of the Association Valentin Hauy (AVH), Paris, and as a joint technical effort of Duxbury Systems, Inc. and AVH. The primary specification for French literary braille usage with contractions is "Abrege Orthographique Etendu," a publication of AVH. "Table de Transcription pour la Production du Braille Abrege par Ordinateur," by Michel Jacquin and published by AVH (1986) was also instrumental in this early development.

The braille-to-print translation tables were added starting in November 1990, with the same sponsors and developers.

In October 1993, Gerard Cecire of Point-Par-Point, Longueuil, Quebec, Canada, starting with the then-current print-to-braille tables for French Braille per AVH, developed this variant table to conform to the Quebec customs. He made several updates through September 1995.

Apart from a few minor corrections, there has been no further development of this table. In particular, the changes to the Quebecois braille code that were defined in 1996 have not been systematically incorporated into this table.

(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)