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This page describes the internal functioning of the respective DBT translation table. If you want more information about languages, scripts, and template choices, please click here.

The initial language table for a translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not involve explicit use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.


The Igbo tables support print-to-braille translation of Igbo-language literary text in grade 2 (contracted) or grade 1 (uncontracted) braille.

BRAILLE to PRINT (also known as Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However Braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore errors could occur. If you find any errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: languages@duxsys.com (Please be sure to include sample files).


There are no special requirements or limitations.


No secondary languages are supported.

While no "secondary languages" are supported within the Igbo table itself, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)


No technical codes are supported.

However, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.


The following DBT translation codes are available when using the Igbo table. Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results. If using an alternative translation table, i.e when switching to another base language table by means of the[lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.

[/] -- ignored

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]








[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille.

[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille, which is the normal mode for this table.

[ii] switches to grade 1 (uncontracted) braille for one word only.

[ii] switches to grade 1 (uncontracted) braille for one word only, and inserts a grade 1 indicator (dot 6).

[in] is equivalent to [g1]


[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng...] -- ignored.



The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of Igbo, French, German, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, and Finnish. Although Igbo letters are basically from the Roman alphabet, the vowels may be marked according to high, middle or low tone using an acute accent, macron, or grave accent respectively. (The mid tone is not normally marked explicitly, but may be in some circumstances.) Likewise some letters (i, o and u) may be marked with a "dot under", and the letter n may be marked with a "dot above". Any available precomposed Unicode characters may be used for these marked letters; U+0148 (precomposed "n with caron") may be entered as a substitute for n with dot above. Alternatively, the markings may be added to the ordinary letter by entering the applicable "combining" Unicode marks immediately after the basic letter. These combining marks are: U+0323 for combining dot below, U+E337 for combining dot above, U+0300 for combining grave accent (low tone), U+0301 for combining acute accent (high tone), and U+0304 for combining macron. Also, to accommodate a stylistic preference found in some documents, a combining plus below (U+031F) may be used instead of the combining dot below. It is also possible to enter a character using both precomposed and combining Unicode characters -- for example, a precomposed u with acute accent plus a combining dot below. When more than one combining mark is needed, they may be entered in any order as long as all follow the basic letter that they are modifying.

British pound sign (£)

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).


These tables are based upon the information given to Duxbury Systems for Igbo by Mrs. Jean Obi.

The tables were originally developed beginning in May 2005 by Duxbury Systems, Inc.

(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)