CYMRAEG (WELSH) Flag of Wales

FUNCTIONAL SUMMARY

The Cymraeg (Welsh) tables support print-to-braille translation of Welsh-language literary text in contracted or uncontracted Welsh braille. English text may also be processed as a sub-language, and converted to contracted or uncontracted English braille (following British conventions as revised 2004-2005). Several other languages may also be processed as sub-languages, and transcribed in accordance with BAUK practice. Technical codes for math and science (BAUK Math Code) and computer notation (BAUK's Braille Computer Notation [BCN]) are also supported.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITATIONS

From version 10.5 onward, DBT is able to display the accented w and y combinations. It is nevertheless often more convenient to use Microsoft Word for entering and editing print text, which can then be imported into DBT for subsequent translation. When preparing the text in Word, be sure to use a Unicode font (such as Lucida Sans or the default Times Roman), so that the underlying characters are encoded in Unicode. (Note that the appearance on screen is not the issue. Fonts that merely cause standard ASCII characters to be displayed as the desired accented letters will not work, because they will be imported according to their standard interpretation, not their appearance.)

True braille-to-print translation is supported only within any embedded English literary text, not in the Welsh text nor technical notation nor any secondary languages other than English. This means that it is not generally useful to translate a Welsh braille file to print. It also means that the "translated line" will typically contain gibberish when viewing the braille file. You may prefer to turn off the "translated line" under the View menu, or even under Global/Default if you wish it to be off by default.

SECONDARY LANGUAGES SUPPORTED

English text may be entered as a secondary language, commencing with the code [lng~en] and terminated by [lng] or [lng~cy] to revert to Welsh. Such English text is converted to contracted or uncontracted English braille. That is, the grade switches affect the translation of the English text as well as the Cymraeg (Welsh) text. In English literary text, British conventions are generally followed, to the extent that they sometimes differ slightly from American or Unified English Braille.

Several other languages may be entered and treated as "in English context," using the [lng...] code to switch. For instance, [lng~fr] (or [lng~fra]) would introduce a French passage, which would be terminated, i.e. reverting to Welsh, at [lng] (or [lng~cy]). The available languages, together with their associated "lng" codes, are:

de (or deu) -- German

en (or eng) -- English

es (or esp) -- Spanish

fr (or fra) -- French

it (or ita) -- Italian

la (or lat) -- Latin

pt -- Portuguese

In German and French secondary language text, contractions as specified by BAUK will normally be used, as long as grade two is in effect. (Those contractions include some but not all of the contractions that would be used in the regular contracted braille for those languages.) The other languages are all transcribed in grade 1 regardless of the grade setting. That is, the [g1] and [g2] codes affect the English text and any German or French text, but not the other languages.

TECHNICAL BRAILLE CODES SUPPORTED

The BAUK math and science code and the BAUK computer notation code, i.e. BCN, are supported.

SUPPORTED DBT TRANSLATION CODES

[/]

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]

[bar]

[be]

[bline] -- ignored.

[bs]

[bsfe] can be used to end the name of a special math function (see [bsfs] below).

[bsfs] can be used to begin the name of a special math function, in the case of uncommon functions that are not directly recognized (most are recognized). For example, [bsfs]tr[bsfe](x) would cause the "tr" in "tr(x)" to be treated as a function name rather than the product of t and r.

[cap-invert] inverts the normal default case of letters in computer notation (BCN), i.e. changes the default to uppercase since the normal default is lowercase. Note that this is the opposite effect that this control had in the earlier British table, reflecting a change in BCN itself.

[cap-normal] restore the normal default case of letters in computer notation (BCN) to lowercase. (Note that this is the opposite effect that this control had in the earlier British table, reflecting a change in BCN itself.)

[caplv1] starts suppressing the indication of capital letters, except in "technical notation" (mathematics between [ts] and [te] commands) and in computer notation (between [cb...] and [tx...] commands).

[caplv3] restores the indication of capital letters everywhere, including literary text. This is the normal mode for this table.

[cb-&]

[cb-de]

[cb-ds]

[cb-ee]

[cb-es]

[cb-ne]

[cb-ns]

[cb-se]

[cb-ss]

[cb-t1]

[cb-t2]

[cb-ue]

[cb-us]

[cb]

[cbi]

[cbn]

[cs-off]

[cs]

[e] -- presently ignored.

[ecane] -- presently ignored.

[ecans] -- presently ignored.

[fe]

[fl]

[fs]

[fte~b]

[fte~i]

[fte~u]

[fts~b]

[fts~i]

[fts~u]

[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille. This affects the Cymraeg (Welsh) text, and also any embedded English, French or German text.

[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille. This is the normal mode, and to any embedded English, French or German text as well as the Cymraeg (Welsh) text.

[i]

[ii]

[in] is equivalent to [g1]

[ixrtd0] -- is a special variant form of [ixrtd], to force "simple" treatment of the indexed root delimiter (no brackets).

[ixrtd]

[ixrte0] -- is a special variant form of [ixrte], to force "simple" treatment of the indexed root end (no brackets).

[ixrte]

[ixrts]

[lng]

[lng~...] (see "Secondary Languages Supported," above)

[oe]

[os]

[pe]

[ps]

[rmn]

[sqrte0] is a special variant form of [sqrte], to force "simple" treatment (no brackets) at a square root end.

[sqrte]

[sqrts0] is a special variant form of [sqrts], to force "simple" treatment (no brackets) at a square root start.

[sqrts]

[tce] -- is allowed but not necessary (ignored).

[tcs] -- is allowed but not necessary (ignored).

[te] cancels the effect of [ts], restoring normal text mode.

[ts] initiates "technical notation," i.e. "math mode".

[tx]

[txi]

[txn]

[ue]

[us]

[vrn] cancels the effect of [vrn~tyfs], restoring the normal treatment of typeform boundaries.

[vrn~tyfs] establishes "strict" indication of the extent (boundaries) of a typeform. Normally, ordinary punctuation that follows a word is considered to be joined to the word for purposes of typeform indication regardless of whether an [fte~...] comes before or after it. For example, " [fts~b]word[fte~b]!" is normally translated as if it were "[fts~b]word![fte~b]". However, for this example with [vrn~tyfs] in effect, the bold face would be formally terminated before the exclamation mark. {As of DBT 12.2}

[xcs]

Other translation codes will generally be ignored, or may cause unpredictable translation results.

CHARACTERS SUPPORTED

The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented letters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, and Spanish

Accented letters typical of Welsh, including the preceding group plus w and y with accents (in DUSCI code pages D+b2... and D+b9...)

British pound, Japanese yen, and other miscellaneous signs (DUSCI pages D+ec..., D+f5...)

Mathematical signs, shapes, etc. (DUSCI pages D+df..., D+e2..., D+f0..., D+f1...)

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).

REFERENCES, HISTORY AND CREDITS

These tables were implemented by Duxbury Systems, Inc. in August 1998, based upon the document entitled "Welsh Braille Code / Braille Cymraeg", Braille Authority of the United Kingdom, December 1995. The Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) and Techno-Vision Systems, Ltd. have provided technical advice and assistance.

In November 2005, these tables were extensively revised to accommodate changes in 2004-2005 in both the English and Welsh braille codes. The major effects of this change were to add support for mathematics and secondary languages other than English, all according to BAUK conventions, and also to switch from the American CBC to British BCN in the treatment of computer notation.

(Documentation reviewed: December 2006).