Working in Word and using the MathType add-on from Design Science for technical notation (mathematical expressions, etc.) is an efficient means to produce braille math. Your choice of DBT template also matters.

Choose your DBT template according to the desired braille math code. If you create a Word document (or LaTeX file as described below) and choose the DBT template "English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth", DBT produces Unified English Braille with Nemeth Code math.

If you take the same Word document (or LaTeX file) and choose the DBT template "English (UEB) - BANA", DBT produces Unified English Braille with UEB math.

As an alternative to MathType, a user may choose instead to work directly in DBT, in Word without MathType, in Scientific Notebook, or in another math word processing program that creates LaTeX output.

For Nemeth material within UEB, Duxbury DBT and the style definitions in the DBT template for Nemeth math closely follow the BANA guidelines. The guidelines, *Guidance for Transcription Using the Nemeth Code within UEB Contexts*, can be found at: www.brailleauthority.org/ueb.html#nemeth

Please, use the above link to get full instructions, but here is the guiding principle:

This method of switching between the Nemeth Code and Unified English Braille has been developed to ensure the continued viability of the use of the Nemeth Code for mathematics. The necessity for this adaptation, which is similar to the current use of switching to computer braille code for email addresses and the like, stems from two basic issues:

In current Nemeth code transcriptions, the non-mathematical text that surrounds the mathematics is based on English Braille, American Edition (EBAE), which is being replaced by Unified English Braille (UEB). If the surrounding text were to continue to be in EBAE, then, in order to use Nemeth Code, braille users and producers would need to be familiar with two sets of rules for contractions, capitalization, emphasis, punctuation, spacing, and so on. Such a requirement would be especially burdensome in the long term to future braille users and producers who learn braille according to UEB symbols and rules and would then need to learn old rules that have been replaced.

As the use of electronic means to read and write in both print and braille proliferates, the need for accurate translation both from print to braille and from braille to print becomes an increasingly critical consideration. An unambiguous switching method eliminates code conflicts and makes possible accurate translation in either direction, so that mathematics can be communicated between print users and braille users using Nemeth Code.

Duxbury made sure to support item 4 in the section "Basic Guidance" regarding when to switch:

To avoid use of switch indicators when a single word standing alone occurs between two math expressions, a one-word switch indicator (6, 3) may be used in Nemeth mode to indicate that the following word is in UEB. Contractions may be used in the subsequent word. The one-word switch indicator should precede the word whether or not it contains contractions. Otherwise, no contractions are used in Nemeth mode. ...

Likewise, Duxbury made sure to support item 4 in the "Additional Guidelines" section on how to handle the labels for math problems:

In a numbered or lettered series of math problems that are in Nemeth code, leave Nemeth mode in effect for the identifiers to avoid excessive switching, even though these identifiers are not technically part of the math.

The DBT translation and formatting template, "English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth" is for producing UEB material that uses Nemeth Code for technical notation. Whether you are working in Word with MathType and the BANA Braille template, in Word without one or the other of those tools, in Scientific Notebook, in a similar program, or directly in DBT, that is the DBT template to use for producing Nemeth Code in UEB.

There are styles in this DBT template that are especially important for producing Nemeth Code within UEB. They are:

- math
- math-TextInMath
- OneWordBridge
- math-NLE

When translating into braille, the style **math** starts by inserting the start Nemeth indicator, dots 456, 146, followed by space and switching into Nemeth Code translation. It ends by switching back to UEB translation and inserting the end Nemeth indicator, space followed by dots 456, 156.

The style **math-TextInMath** is meant to identify words and problem identifiers which are in a Nemeth context but do not contain technical notation.

When translating into braille, the style **OneWordBridge** inserts dots 6, 3, switches the translation to UEB, and then switches translation back to Nemeth Code. Used for one word of text between two segments of technical notation, it implements the "one-word switch" described in the Guidelines referenced above.

Both of the styles **math-TextInMath** and **OneWordBridge** are meant to be nested within the math style in DBT, to avoid excessive switching in and out of Nemeth Code.

The **math-NLE** style is just like the **math** style, but with one difference. In the math-NLE style, the end Nemeth indicator is placed on a new line at the left margin. This is useful if you wish to line up the end Nemeth indicator with one or more problem labels. Currently, to use this style, you need to change the style from math to math-NLE while in DBT. To do so, put DBT into Coded view, highlight the content of that instance of the math style, press F8, and select **math-NLE**. Then delete the begin or end marker for the math style, which deletes both.

One important use for the style **math-TextInMath** is for problem labels in a list of problems that consist entirely of technical notation. As specified in the *Additional Guideline #4*, problem labels should be brailled in Nemeth Code, to avoid the need for indicators to switch out of Nemeth Code and then back again. If problem labels were done in the **math** style, the period would be brailled as dots 46 and letters would not get the letter sign. On the other hand, when using the style **math-TextInMath** for problem labels, the period is brailled as dots 456, 256, and letters get the letter sign as desired.

We have two general recommendations whenever you are working in Word to prepare a document for DBT.

First, we recommend using the "BANA Braille" Word template provided with DBT. The latest versions are "BANA Braille 2017" and "BANA Braille 2017a".

Second, we recommend installing SWIFT 5.0 (or later), to take advantage of the built-in Duxbury commands that it adds to Word's ribbon interface. (SWIFT is an add-in to MS Word for Windows.) The "hot keys" combinations below assume your copy of Word has SWIFT installed. Help regarding SWIFT can be found in the SWIFT topics.

When you use Word with MathType, all of the MathType objects are automatically brought into DBT as technical notation, each one marked separately with the **math** style. Any text entered in MathType using MathType's text style is automatically brought into DBT marked up with the **math-TextInMath** style.

If you follow the instructions in the next paragraph, other elements are also brought into DBT with the desired styling.

Assume that you want to set up a section consisting of several MathType objects, some problem labels, and some one-word text connectors. Informally, we call this a "pass-through in math section." At the start of this section insert the text [[*idle~ptims*]], which provides a signal for the DBT importer. At the end of the section insert the text [[*idle~ptime*]], which is another signal for the DBT importer.

If you are working with the BANA Braille template in Word, you will find buttons for inserting these codes under the **Add-Ins** tab. Then look for the **Nemeth Codes** menu (hotkeys: Alt followed by X, Y, Y, N).
These buttons are called **Technical Chain Start** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, T) and **Technical Chain End** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, L). In the **Nemeth** menu (likewise in the Add-Ins tab), you will find a control for applying the style **OneWordBridge** (Alt, X, Y, Y, M, O).

When you open the Word document in DBT, the entire "pass-through in math" section is marked with the **math** style to put the start and end Nemeth indicators around the whole section, not around individual items within it. Within the mathematical material, all of the problem labels are marked with the style **math-TextInMath**. Any Word that you marked with the **OneWordBridge** style in Word is marked automatically with the OneWordBridge style in DBT.

If you are working in Word without MathType, our general recommendations are the same. We recommend using SWIFT 5.0 (or later) and the latest "BANA Braille" Word template provided with DBT.

Without MathType, you need a different way to specify where the technical notation begins and ends. Insert the text [[*ts*]], which acts as a "technical notation start" code for the DBT importer, and the text [[*te*]], which is a "technical notation end" code for the DBT importer.

Again, when working with the BANA Braille template in Word, you will find buttons for inserting these codes under the **Add-Ins** tab. Then look for the **Nemeth Codes** menu (hotkeys: Alt, X, Y, Y, N). Use the buttons called **Technical Notation Start** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, N) and **Technical Notation End** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, O). These buttons insert the codes [[*ts*]] and [[*te*]] as hidden text in Word.

To create a pass through in math section, insert the text [[*idle~ptims*]] and [[*idle~ptime*]] at the start and end. As mentioned above, there are buttons for inserting these codes. The buttons, called **Technical Chain Start** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, T) and **Technical Chain End** (Alt, X, Y, Y, N, L), are in the **Nemeth Codes** menu in the Add-Ins tab.

When preparing UEB braille, either with Nemeth Code math or with UEB math, there is no reason to use the buttons **Technical Context Start** and **Technical Context End** in the Nemeth Codes menu. These are useful only when preparing pre-UEB Nemeth Code (and hence are marked *EBAE only*).

Starting with version 12.2 of DBT, when you use Scientific Notebook or another tool to create a LaTeX file to open in DBT, the DBT LaTeX importer determines on its own where to create a "pass-through in math" section for Nemeth Code in UEB context. It assigns the DBT styles **math**, **math-TextInMath** and **OneWordBridge** where they are needed.

When working directly in DBT, for a section consisting entirely of technical notation and problem labels, and up to one word at a time of text within technical notation, highlight the entire section, press F8 to apply a style, and select **math** for the style. Within this section, highlight any problem label and apply the style **math-TextInMath**. For any single word of text within this section, highlight the word and apply the style **OneWordBridge**.