English Flag of England and other nations

Multiple Templates for English

The English language has a large number of DBT templates.

Unified English Braille (UEB) is now standard in all English speaking countries. Accordingly, all the "English (UEB)" templates employ the same UEB braille translator. They may differ with respect to math translation and especially formatting, i.e., different DBT templates may contain different DBT styles, and the effects of those styles may differ. UEB templates use UEB math translation unless the template name specifies Nemeth.

The acronym, BANA, stands for the Braille Authority of North America. The DBT BANA templates are helpful if you are in the United States or Canada and trying to meet exacting standards for textbook production. The template English (UEB) - BANA uses UEB text and UEB math translation. The template English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth uses UEB text translation along with Nemeth Code for math and technical notation.

DBT still has the templates and translator tables for the braille codes used prior to the introduction of UEB.

Here is the list of the pre-UEB templates formerly used in the United States:

Here is the list of the pre-UEB templates previously used in the United Kingdom:

The United Kingdom also makes minor use of a non-braille tactile alphabet called Moon Transcription. There are two templates for this system:

A link to the details for the relevant DBT translator can be found in the description of each template.

Meeting Exacting Standards

For users in the United States, the BANA DBT templates are used to meet exacting formatting standards. Frequently, braille transcribers prepare the text in Microsoft Word. Usually, those files use a BANA Word template. Click here to learn more about the Word template.

For users in the United Kingdom, the recommended DBT template is English (UEB) - UK formatting. This DBT template can also import Word documents that use the "BANA Word template".

Math Issues in English

As of 2016, UEB has been adopted throughout the English-speaking world. In the United States (and only in the United States), BANA has allowed the widespread use of Nemeth Code for technical notation.

The tools in the Duxbury Braille Translator for producing UEB according to BANA standards allow you to choose Nemeth Code or UEB math for technical notation. Your concerns as a transcriber differ depending on which you are using. When mixing Nemeth code with UEB text you need to attend to the transitions between passages of UEB and Nemeth code. There are DBT styles designed to manage these transitions: math, math-TextInMath, and OneWordBridge. You will find these styles, defined appropriately, in many DBT templates, but they are particularly important in the "English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth" template where they produce the required transitions.

The rules of UEB math allow some flexibility with respect to spacing around signs of comparison, like the equals sign, and signs of operation, like the plus or minus signs. Most users of UEB use spaces around signs of comparison. Signs of operation are usually not spaced, though some braille jurisdictions choose otherwise, as the case requires, to meet the educational needs of some readers, etc. The UEB translator does not automatically add spaces for either situation. However, in Global Settings - Import Options, there is a checkbox for adding spaces around signs of comparison when importing files with math. This option applies both for importing Word documents with MathType and for importing LaTeX files.

Contracted Braille

English is usually produced in contracted braille. This means that words are not produced in braille on a one-for-one basis. There are abbreviations or contractions in the text. If you have questions about how braille is produced, please contact a member of the relevant braille authority.

Sometimes, you may want to produce uncontracted braille. This is easy to do with DBT. Before translation into braille, go to the top of the document in DBT, and press Alt+1. When you translate into braille, the braille will be uncontracted.