Urdu Flag of PakistanFlag of India

Multiple Templates for Urdu

The Urdu language has multiple DBT templates:

India uses a system of consistent braille for each sound. Urdu braille differs from this pattern for a few characters. Urdu (in India) places a dot 5 to show that these letters vary from the national braille standard.

In the template names above, "Nemeth" refers to the use of the Nemeth Code for mathematics and science notation, used in the United States, India, and a few other countries. The Urdu (Indian) - Basic template uses the UEB (Unified English Braille) code for mathematics, and the Urdu (Pakistani) - Basic template uses the Arabic math code.

For details about the DBT translator used, select one of the DBT templates for this language.

Uncontracted Braille

This language is usually produced in uncontracted braille, which means that words in the text are rendered in braille on a one-for-one basis: one braille character for each inkprint letter. Some inkprint punctuation may require more than one braille character. Indicating upper case, emphasis, or numbers also adds braille characters to the character count. However, the braille contains no abbreviations or contractions.

If you have questions about producing correct braille, please contact a member of the appropriate braille authority.

Non-Roman Script

Urdu is written in a script other than the Roman alphabet, a script that goes from right-to-left. This can occasionally cause problems when importing files to DBT. The best result is usually achieved by importing files from Microsoft Word or Open Office that are written in Unicode fonts. You can contact Duxbury Systems if you have file that does not import properly into DBT. Please send the original inkprint file with your request, not a screen shot of the DBT screen.

Duxbury DBT does not yet properly handle scripts that read from right-to-left for editing purposes. You can open (import) a file, and you can translate into braille. However, you cannot edit the inkprint within DBT. We regret this and hope to correct this issue in a later release of DBT.