# Direct Entry of Mathematics Braille

Many users produce math equations using a program such as MathType. This help page is for expert transcribers who wish to enter their math directly into the DBT Editor.

## Preparation

- Go to the help page List of Math Operators, and print out this list. You will need the special codes on this page.
- Go to the help page List of Greek characters. Print out this list. You will need the first portion of the list (U+0391-U+03C9, which includes the Greek characters upper case alpha through lower case omega).
- Identify which DBT template you will use for math production. The correct template depends on your geographic location and your choice of braille math codes.
- There are two DBT commands you will use repeatedly:
- Control-[ -- to enter a DBT code.
- Control-] -- to enter a DUSCI character.

### Entering Math

#### Math Operators and Greek Letters

Take the list of characters, and find the character you want. Each row gives you the character, its Unicode, its DUSCI code, and the character name. For example, one row shows: **∃ - U+2203 - D+F033 - THERE EXISTS**.

To enter this symbol, you type control-]. You will see a box in DBT with the heading **Enter DUSCI code number**. The DUSCI code number for **There Exists** is **F033**. You type F033 <Enter> (that is a zero not a letter 'o'). Also try entering a Greek letter (pick your favorite).

#### math and math-TextInMath DBT Styles

The math and math-TextInMath styles are contained in your DBT template. You can also customize to add your own styles. If you have done a custom math style, substitute your new style name in these instructions.

Mathematical material in DBT should be enclosed within the **math** style.

- Highlight your mathematics material.
- Press F8.
- Use the down arrow until you see
**math**. - Press Enter to select that style.
- You can press Alt-F3 to toggle on "coded view" to show that you have indeed enclosed the equation in the
**math**style. (Press again to return to formatted view.)

Text which occurs entirely within the bounds of **math** material can be marked as **math-TextInMath**. The start and end of **math-TextInMath** should always be within material marked as the **math** style. Use the same method shown above to use this style.

#### Fractions

Fractions are easy. You just need to know these codes:

Code | Meaning |
---|---|

fs | fraction start |

fl | fraction line |

fe | fraction end |

to write the fraction x+y divided by 17, enter:

Control-[ fs <Enter> x+y Control-[ fl <Enter> 17 Control-[ fe <Enter>

Press Alt-F3 to toggle on "coded view" to show you have indeed inserted the three DBT codes that make up a fraction.

#### Fractions and Nemeth Code

For Nemeth Code only, there are additional codes (or variations) for mixed numbers and complex fractions.

Code | Meaning |
---|---|

fs0 | mixed number, fraction start |

fl | fraction line (same code either way) |

fe0 | mixed number, fraction end |

to write the mixed number 7 and a half, enter:

7 Control-[ fs0 <Enter> 1 Control-[ fl <Enter> 2 Control-[ fe0 <Enter>

Nemeth Code uses a dot 6 to show a complex fraction (the outer fraction), and a double dot 6 to show a hyper-complex fraction (the outer-outer fraction).

Code | Meaning |
---|---|

fs1 | complex fraction start |

fl1 | complex fraction line |

fe1 | complex fraction end |

fs2 | hyper-complex fraction start |

fl2 | hyper-complex fraction line |

fe2 | hyper-complex fraction end |

to write the complex fraction of x+y divided by a third, enter:

Control-[ fs1 <Enter> x+y Control-[ fl1 Control-[ fs <Enter> 1 Control-[ fl <Enter> 3 Control-[ fe <Enter> Control-[ fe1 <Enter>

#### Superscripts and Subscripts

Superscripts and Subscripts are easy. You just need to know these codes:

Code | Meaning |
---|---|

ps | superscript start |

pe | superscript end |

bs | subscript start |

be | subscript end |

To write x squared, enter:

x Control-[ ps <Enter> 2 Control-[ pe <Enter>

To write x sub n, enter:

x Control-[ bs <Enter> n Control-[ pe <Enter>

#### Square Roots and Radicals

Square Roots and Radicals are easy. You just need to know these codes:

Code | Meaning |
---|---|

sqrts | square root start |

sqrte | square root end |

ixrts | index of radical start |

ixrtd | index of radical end, start of radical |

ixrte | end of radical |

To write the square root of x+12, enter:

Control-[ sqrts <Enter> x+12 Control-[ sqrte <Enter>

To write the cube root of x+12, enter:

Control-[ ixrts <Enter> 3 Control-[ ixrtd <Enter> x+12 Control-[ ixrte <Enter>