Korean - Translator Table
Table Designator: kor
A translation table is a module in DBT that provides the rules to convert (translate) a document from print-to-braille or from braille-to-print. Normally, it is selected by the DBT template that controls production of the current document. All documents have a template. In fact, for many languages there are multiple templates, with differences in translation rules or formatting, but each references at least one translation table. (For more on templates, see DBT Templates, the Basics.)
Regardless of your template, you can choose a different translation table to translate your current document using the Translation Table selection from the DBT Document Menu.
You can also select different translation tables to use for particular passages in your document. See the section below on Language Table Switching.
The Korean tables support print-to-braille translation of Korean-language literary text into contracted or uncontracted Korean braille.
Translation from braille-to-print is supported for this language.
Table Designator: kor identifies this translation table for Language Table Switching.
Braille Contractions: This language is usually produced in contracted braille, which means one should not expect a one-to-one correspondence between inkprint letters and braille cells. Instead, abbreviations (contractions) are used for many common words and letter sequences.
Capital Sign: The Korean translator does not use any capitalization mark in braille because the native script does not employ capitalization. Text written with the Roman alphabet (such as English) uses dot 6 for capitalization.
Emphasis: The Korean translator ignores all bold, italics, and underlining from the inkprint text. These are not represented in the braille.
Mathematical Braille: Duxbury Systems is not yet supporting the national mathematics braille system with this translator.
Script Systems Used: Korean is written in Hangul characters. Typically a Hangul character is made up of three (though sometimes only two) elements. The Korean Hangul characters are found in the Unicode range U+AC00 through U+D7AF. As Korean is imported into Duxbury DBT, these characters are converted into the individual parts of the character located in the Unicode range U+1100-11FF.
After a Korean file has been imported into DBT, the result of importation is a visual display that shows each of these elements as if it were a separate character, a very difficult display if one needs to review the Korean text. However, the braille translation from this document will be correct. Duxbury Systems acknowledges the difficulty of reading and editing the inkprint document in the DBT editor and recommends reviewing the text prior to import in an editor such as Microsoft Word.
Translation Modes (DBT Codes which Change the Mode of Translation)
A number of DBT codes affect the mode of the translation or create special translation effects on specific letters or symbols. Some translation modes are specific to particular translator tables.
[g1] switches to grade 1 as the "prevailing grade", but does not insert a grade 1 indicator.
[g2] resumes grade 2 as the prevailing grade, but does not insert a grade 2 indicator. (Grade 2 is the normal prevailing grade.)
For more about DBT codes that affect the mode of translation, search on the two words, "translation code", in the topic, DBT Codes Quick Reference.
Language Table Switching
DBT has translation tables for over 200 world languages. Modern versions of DBT allow using multiple language translation tables within a single document.
Suppose that you are working on a document using this base translation table, but it has passages in a foreign language, or that need a technical braille code. At the beginning of each such passage, insert the DBT code lnb, followed by ~ (tilde) and the table designator for the desired language table. (The table designator for each language table is listed in the Key Characteristics.) Note that using the lnb code you can change from the base table to virtually any other translation table and back again.
For some language tables, the table designator is short, like ise for Icelandic. Thus, to switch to Icelandic braille translation, insert [lnb~ise]. The table designators are more elaborate for mathematics code tables and for languages that have multiple translation tables. As an example, the designator for Unified French Braille is fra-xuf. To start a passage in the French Unified Braille code, insert [lnb~fra-xuf]. At the end of a foreign language passage, use the plain [lnb] code to switch back to the original, base, language translation table.
Some translation tables, and hence their table designators, are for braille codes but not for natural languages. Some examples are the International Phonetic Alphabet (designator: qip) and Nemeth Code (designator: qmt-xnem72m) for mathematics. Using lnb with those table designators allows you to switch to the IPA braille code or the Nemeth braille math code.
While a plain [lnb] code returns translation to the base language, it does not restore any other translation properties that might have been in effect before the switch. For example, if you had been using a [g1L] code (for "grade 1 lock") to prevent contractions, you need to repeat that code after the [lnb] code to restore that effect. Fortunately, you can build lnb codes into DBT styles, to customize what modes to enter and exit at the switch in and out of a translation table.
Note that DBT templates whose names contain the word "basic" all have a number of styles defined for switching between different translation tables. (For the list, see Basic Templates.)
Notice that if you include Roman alphabet characters in a document but do not use a language style or code to switch to a different translation table, you will get uncontracted English with the same marks of punctuation, emphasis, and capitalization used for the base language.
References, History and Credits
Duxbury Systems initial work on the Korean translator was based on the Wikipedia article on Korean Braille at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Braille. This work was refined using information from a PDF file on Korean Braille (written in English) obtained from our Korean tester, Mr. J. C. Lee of Hanlee Tech Co., Ltd. This PDF file was stripped of its title page, so neither the author nor the title can be correctly credited. Although Duxbury faithfully followed the rules outlined in this publication, we welcome concrete feedback on ways to improve this translator.
The guidance for deconstruction of compound Hangul characters into their elements comes from the document, http://www.i18nl10n.com/korean/jamocomp.html.
Updates and Errors
If you have information about changes in the braille rules for your language, please email Duxbury so that we may update our translation tables. Likewise, if you find errors in your translated document, in either the print-to-braille or braille-to-print direction, please contact us. To describe your problem, it is best to send both the *.dxp and *.dxb files along with a full explanation, because the correct braille is often a matter of very specific circumstances. Contact Duxbury at: firstname.lastname@example.org.