Languages and DBT

All items marked with an asterisk (*) are under development, and will be available in the next version of DBT.

The Different Ways Languages are Used in DBT


Translation Tables/Template Names in DBT 11.2

Duxbury DBT uses a system of supplied (or user installed) templates to select a braille translator. But the template can do more than just select a language translator. For most languages, there is only one template. For others there are more than one. For example, there are two templates for Mandarin Chinese, for the two most popular levels of the display of tones in braille.

Each translation table is used to produce a different form of braille. Duxbury DBT can produce braille needed for many different languages and nations. "Contracted" means there are abbreviations for certain letter combinations. "Uncontracted" means that all inkprint letter combinations are preserved in the braille.

Please note that there are actually two levels of language support for braille translation, a primary language, and a secondary language in the context of the first. For example, both "Spanish" entries in the European language list are designed for native speakers in countries where Spanish is the national language (primary language). If you are producing a textbook on Spanish to be used in the United States, however, the braille would be produced using the English/American table, with Spanish chosen as a secondary language.

The Five World Regions

As you use Duxbury DBT, Templates are arranged by 5 world regions to make the lists manageable. If you want, you can list all the Templates in one long list.

Western Hemisphere
Europe
Asia
Africa
Pacific


Western Hemisphere

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of Israel Flag of Greece Assyrian FlagBiblical original language studies *11.3qbiNo
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/Americaneng-xnaYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American Textbookeng-xnatYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American Textbook (Distinct Emphasis)eng-xnateYes
Flag of Canada Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of CanadaFrench/Québec (pre-Unified)fra-xquYes
Flag of CanadaFrench (Unified)fra-xufYes
Flag of the United States Flag of GreeceGreek Classical (American)grc-aNo
Flag of Greenland Flag of DenmarkGreenlandic/DanishdanYes
Flag of the United StatesHebrew/Americanheb-usaNo
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes *
Flag of BrazilPortuguese/UncontractedporYes
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/OriginalspaNo
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/Reducidaspa-xreNo


Europe

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of AlbaniaAlbaniansqiYes
Flag of BelarusBelarusianbelYes
Flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnianbosYes
Flag of BulgariaBulgarian/UncontractedbulYes
Flag of AndoraCatalancatYes
Flag of RussiaChuvash *11.3chvYes
Flag of CroatiaCroatianhrvYes
Flag of the United KingdomFlag of WalesCymraeg (Welsh)cymNo
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzechcesYes
Flag of DenmarkDanishdanYes
Flag of the Netherlands Flag of BelgiumDutchnldYes
Flag of the EUEBU Pharmaceuticalqqp-ebuNo
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/Britisheng-xukYes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/British (pre 2005 rules)eng-xuk00Yes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/Mooneng-xukmoonYes
Flag of the United Kingdom Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of EstoniaEstonianestYes
Flag of Faroese IslandsFaroese/IcelandiciseYes
Flag of FinlandFinnish/UncontractedfinYes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (pre-Unified)fra-fra00Yes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (Unified)fra-xufYes
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of SwitzerlandGermandeuYes
Flag of Greece Flag of CyprusGreek (Modern)/UncontractedellYes
Flag of HungaryHungarianhunYes
Flag of IcelandIcelandiciseYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes *
Flag of the United KingdomIrish GaelicgleNo
Flag of Italy Flag of SwitzerlandItalian/UncontracteditaYes
Flag of Vatican CityLatin/UncontractedlatYes
Flag of LatviaLatvian/UncontractedlavYes
Flag of LithuaniaLithuanian/UncontractedlitYes
Flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgishltzYes
Flag of MacedoniaMacedonianmkdYes
Flag of MaltaMaltesemltYes
Flag of MontenegroMontenegrinsrp-mneYes
Flag of NorwayNorwegiannorYes
Flag of PolandPolishpolYes
Flag of PortugalPortuguese/UncontractedporYes
Flag of Romania Flag of MoldoviaRomanianronYes
Flag of RussiaRussian/UncontractedrusYes
Flag of SerbiaSerbiansrpYes
Flag of Slovak RepublicSlovakslkYes
Flag of SloveniaSlovenianslvYes
Flag of SpainSpanish/OriginalspaNo
Flag of Mexico Flag of SpainSpanish/Reducidaspa-xreNo
Flag of SwedenSwedish/UncontractedsweYes
Flag of RussiaTatartatYes
Flag of Turkey Flag of CyprusTurkishturYes
Flag of RussiaUdmurtudmYes
Flag of the UkraineUkrainian/UncontractedukrYes


Asia

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicaraYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)ara-x00No
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, EasternhyeYes
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, WesternqhyYes
Flag of IndiaAssameseasmYes
Flag of IndiaAwadhiawaYes
Flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijaniazeYes
Flag of BangladeshBengali (Bangla)/BangladeshbenYes
Flag of IndiaBengali (Bangla)/IndiabenYes
Flag of IndiaBhojpuribhoYes
Flag of MyanmarBurmesemyaYes
Flag of PhilippinesCebuanocebYes
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/MandarincmnNo
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/Mandarin with tonescmnYes
Flag of ChinaChinese/Yue (Cantonese)yueYes
Flag of BangladeshChittagonianctgYes
Flag of AfghanistanDariprsYes
Flag of BhutanDzongkhadzoYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of IranianFarsi (Persian)/UncontractedfasYes
Flag of PhilippinesFilipinofilYes
Flag of GeorgianGeorgiankatYes
Flag of IndiaGujuratigujYes
Flag of IndiaHaryanvibgcYes
Flag of IsraelHebrew/Israeli Uncontractedheb-isrYes
Flag of the PhilippinesHiligaynonhilYes
Flag of IndiaHindihinYes
Flag of PhilippinesIlokoiloYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes *
Flag of IndonesiaIndonesianindYes
Flag of JapanJapanese (Kana)jpnYes
Flag of IndonesiaJavanese *11.3javNo
Flag of IndiaKannadakanYes
Flag of KazakhstanKazakh/UncontractedkazYes
Flag of CambodianKhmer (Cambodian)khmYes
Flag of IndiaKirghizkirYes
Flag of South Korea Flag of North KoreaKoreankorYes
Flag of Iraq Flag of Turkey Flag of Iran Flag of KurdishKurdishkurYes
Flag of IndiaKurukhkurYes
Flag of LaosLaolaoYes
Flag of IndiaMagahimagYes
Flag of IndiaMaithilimaiYes
Flag of MalaysiaMalaymsaYes
Flag of IndiaMalayalammalYes
Flag of IndiaMarathimarYes
Flag of IndiaMeitei (Manipuri)mniYes
Flag of MongoliaMongolianmonYes
Flag of NepalNepalinepYes
Flag of IndiaOriyaoriYes
Flag of India Flag of PakistanPanjabipanYes
Flag of Pakistan Flag of AfghanistanPushtopusYes
Flag of RussiaRussian/UncontractedrusYes
Flag of IndiaSadrisckYes
Flag of IndiaSanskritsanYes
Flag of IndiaSantalisatYes
Flag of IndiaSindhisndYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanSinhalasinYes
Flag of IndiaSylhetisylYes
Flag of the PhilippinesTagalogtglYes
Flag of TajikistanTajiktgkYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanTamiltamYes
Flag of IndiaTelugutelYes
Flag of ThailandThaithaYes
Flag of ChinaTibetanbodYes
Flag of TurkeyTurkishturYes
Flag of TurkmenistanTurkmentukYes
Flag of IndiaUrdu/Indiaurd-indYes
Flag of PakistanUrdu/Pakistanurd-pakYes
Flag of UzbekistanUzbekuzbYes
Flag of VietnamVietnamese/UncontractedvieYes


Africa

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaansafrYes
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaans (pre-Unified)afr-x00No
Flag of EthiopiaAmharicamhYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicaraYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)ara-x02No
Flag of South AfricaEnglish/South African (pre-Unified)eng-zaf00Yes
Flag of South Africa Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of Ghana Flag of TogoÉwéeweNo
Flag of Nigeria Flag of NigerHausahauYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes *
Flag of NigeriaIgboiboYes
Flag of South Africa Flag of ZimbabweNdebelendeNo
Flag of South AfricaNguniqngNo
Flag of ZimbabweShona *11.3snaNo
Flag of SomaliaSomalisomYes
Flag of South AfricaSotho (Southern or Northern (Pedi))sotNo
Flag of Kenya Flag of TanzaniaSwahiliswaYes
Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandSwatisswNo
Flag of EthiopianTigrinyatigYes
Flag of Mozambique Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandTsongatsoNo
Flag of South AfricaTswanatsnNo
Flag of South AfricaVendavenNo
Flag of South AfricaXhosaxhoNo
Flag of NigeriaYorubayorYes
Flag of South AfricaZuluzulNo


Pacific

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of AustraliaEnglish/Australian (pre-Unified)eng-aus00Yes
Flag of Australia Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes *


Secondary Languages within English/American

Each primary language table has some secondary languages which can be used with it. The secondary languages listed below are available while the English/American table is in use. Use the secondary language to translate passages of the foreign language within English text. The English text (the primary language) is translated using the regular English/American rules.

Flag of Netherlands Dutch
Flag of the United States Flag of Canada Flag of the United KingdomEnglish -- Religious
Flag of FinlandFinnish
Flag of FranceFrench
Flag of GermanyGerman
Flag of HawaiiHawaiian
Flag of ItalyItalian
Flag of Vatican CityLatin
New Zealand FlagMaori
Flag of Portugal Flag of BrazilPortuguese
Kenya Flag Tanzania FlagKiswahili (Swahili)
Flag of SpainSpanish
Flag of SwedenSwedish

Information about secondary languages available in other tables can be found by pressing the F1 Help key when reviewing the Translation Table menu (found in the DBT Document Menu). That is, if the highlight is on "English/Australian", and then you press F1, you get help and a list of Secondary Languages for "English/Australian."


The Language of the User Interface in the DBT Program

The Language of the User Interface means the language of the menus, prompts, and error messages when one uses Duxbury DBT. When DBT first boots up, it uses the Regional setting in the Control Panel to decide what User Interface Language to start in. After that, you can change the User Interface Language in DBT's Global, Internationalization menu. There are 14 choices.

Flag of the ChinaChinese
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzech
Flag of DenmarkDanish
Flag of the United States Flag of Canada Flag of the United KingdomFlag of AustraliaEnglish
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of Switzerland German
Flag of Italy Flag of Switzerland Italian
Flag of South Korean Flag of North KoreanKorean
Flag of NorwayNorwegian
Flag of PolandPolish
Flag of Portugal Flag of BrazilPortuguese
Flag of RussiaRussian
Flag of Spain Flag of MexicoSpanish
Flag of SwedenSwedish

The Language for the Help File in DBT

Using Google Translate and an internet connection, the DBT Help material is translated into many languages. While machine translation is not ideal, it does allow for the translation of fast changing material. Link to the Internet Edition of the DBT Help.


The Braille Font Used

When DBT displays braille dot patterns on the screen, the way this is done is usually not an issue to a user. But if the user is blind, and is using software like JAWS to drive a braille device to follow the screen, then the user very much wants the braille on the screen to match the braille on the braille display. This is only possible if the braille font the DBT uses matches the association between ASCII characters and braille cells used on the braille display.

DBT sends ASCII characters to drive different braille devices. Different devices and/or different regions use different systems to associate braille characters with ASCII characters. This is an area that is quite technical, and frustrating if it is not set up properly. However, virtually all braille devices made can work with the North American system, which is the default. Or the user can select another system in the Global, Internationalization menu.

DBT uses a file called display.cpt to link braille symbols with ASCII characters. To solve problems that cannot be handled using the existing choices, this table can be edited. Users who successfully modify this table for additional braille devices are request to email it to Duxbury systems so that others can also have access to additional braille device set-ups.


The System of Braille Formatting

Duxbury DBT contains a sophisticated and powerful suite of braille formatting commands derived from the requirements of American, British, French, and other braille formats. Duxbury Systems is working to make sure that its features meet the needs of braille around the world. No matter what braille system you work in, we believe there is a way to use DBT's commands to produce your desired format. If you have concerns that you do not think are being addressed in DBT, please contact Duxbury Systems. If possible, please, also supply an English translation of the relevant braille codebook sections to assist us in understanding your concerns.


The Duxbury Systems Website

Thanks to Google Translate, this website has been "customized" for many different languages. We know that machine translation is not the best approach. But machine translation keeps up with the changes we make to this website.


Language Support in your Computer

In order to view some scripts in Word documents, or in DBT files, please be careful about fonts and operating systems.

On a Windows XP machine, Latin Letters, Greek and Cyrillic scripts are viewable.

On a Windows XP machine, when you use the Control Panel, Regional Settings, Languages, and click the box for Right to Left Languages, you add support for Hebrew and Arabic.

On a Windows XP machine, when you use the Control Panel, Regional Settings, Languages, and click the boxes for Asian Language Support, you can add a number of Asian scripts.

A few scripts (Mandarin, Cantonese, Ethiopic, Khmer, Lao, Oriya, Sinhala, and Tibetan) are best viewed on a Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8 machine.

Myanmar (Burmese) script support requires Windows 8.


Duxbury Reachs Out to Meet Braille Needs Around the World

In the fall of 2013, an article written by Duxbury Staff came out in the publication The Educator (see page 54 of the pdf). You can also read the article here as an html file.

This article describes the many ways that Duxbury Systems reaches out to help produce a braille translator in a new language. Much has happened since this was published. The collection of sample Word files now includes samples of 100 different languages. Duxbury DBT 11.2 SR4 has been released, so every project described in the article is now available on every new copy of Duxbury DBT that is sold or evaluated.

The article in The Educator points out the number of ways that users around the world can work with Duxbury Staff to improve Duxbury DBT. Contact us at: languages@duxsys.com


Copyright Duxbury Systems, Inc. Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Duxbury Systems, Inc. website