Languages and DBT

The Different Ways Languages are Used in DBT

Translation Tables/Template Names in DBT 11.2

Duxbury DBT uses a system of supplied (or user installed) templates to select a braille translator. But the template can do more than just select a language translator. For most languages, there is only one template. For others there are more than one. For example, there are two templates for Mandarin Chinese, for the two most popular levels of the display of tones in braille.

Each translation table is used to produce a different form of braille. Duxbury DBT can produce braille needed for many different languages and nations. "Contracted" means there are abbreviations for certain letter combinations. "Uncontracted" means that all inkprint letter combinations are preserved in the braille.

Please note that there are actually two levels of language support for braille translation, a primary language, and a secondary language in the context of the first. For example, both "Spanish" entries in the European language list are designed for native speakers in countries where Spanish is the national language (primary language). If you are producing a textbook on Spanish to be used in the United States, however, the braille would be produced using the English/American table, with Spanish chosen as a secondary language.

The Five World Regions

As you use Duxbury DBT, Templates are arranged by 5 world regions to make the lists manageable. If you want, you can list all the Templates in one long list.

Western Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

Flag(s)DBT Template NameBraille-to-Print
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/AmericanYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American TextbookYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American Textbook (Distinct Emphasis)Yes
Flag of Canada Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/UnifiedYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoYes
Flag of CanadaFrench/Québec (pre-Unified)Yes
Flag of CanadaFrench (Unified)Yes
Flag of the United States Flag of GreeceGreek Classical (American)No
Flag of Greenland Flag of DenmarkGreenlandic/DanishYes
Flag of the United StatesHebrew/AmericanNo
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemNo
Flag of BrazilPortuguese/UncontractedYes
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/OriginalNo
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/ReducidaNo


Flag(s)DBT Template NameBraille-to-Print
Flag of AlbaniaAlbanianYes
Flag of BelarusBelarusianYes
Flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnianYes
Flag of BulgariaBulgarian/UncontractedYes
Flag of AndoraCatalanYes
Flag of CroatiaCroatianYes
Flag of the United KingdomCymraeg (Welsh)No
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzechYes
Flag of DenmarkDanishYes
Flag of the Netherlands Flag of BelgiumDutchYes
Flag of the EUEBU PharmaceuticalNo
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/BritishYes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/British (pre 2005 rules)Yes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/MoonYes
Flag of the United Kingdom Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/UnifiedYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoYes
Flag of EstoniaEstonianYes
Flag of Faroese IslandsFaroese/IcelandicYes
Flag of FinlandFinnish/UncontractedYes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (pre-Unified)Yes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (Unified)Yes
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of SwitzerlandGermanYes
Flag of Greece Flag of CyprusGreek (Modern)/UncontractedYes
Flag of HungaryHungarianYes
Flag of IcelandIcelandicYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemNo
Flag of the United KingdomIrish GaelicNo
Flag of Italy Flag of SwitzerlandItalian/UncontractedYes
Flag of Vatican CityLatin/UncontractedNo
Flag of LatviaLatvian/UncontractedYes
Flag of LithuaniaLithuanian/UncontractedYes
Flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgishYes
Flag of MacedoniaMacedonianYes
Flag of MaltaMalteseYes
Flag of MontenegroMontenegrinYes
Flag of NorwayNorwegianYes
Flag of PolandPolishYes
Flag of PortugalPortuguese/UncontractedYes
Flag of Romania Flag of MoldoviaRomanianYes
Flag of RussiaRussian/UncontractedYes
Flag of SerbiaSerbianYes
Flag of Slovak RepublicSlovakYes
Flag of SloveniaSlovenianYes
Flag of SpainSpanish/OriginalNo
Flag of Mexico Flag of SpainSpanish/ReducidaNo
Flag of SwedenSwedish/UncontractedYes
Flag of RussiaTatarYes
Flag of Turkey Flag of CyprusTurkishYes
Flag of RussiaUdmurtYes
Flag of the UkraineUkrainian/UncontractedYes


Flag(s)DBT Template NameBraille-to-Print
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)No
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, EasternYes
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, WesternYes
Flag of IndiaAssameseYes
Flag of IndiaAwadhiYes
Flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijaniYes
Flag of BangladeshBengali (Bangla)/BangladeshYes
Flag of IndiaBengali (Bangla)/IndiaYes
Flag of IndiaBhojpuriYes
Flag of MyanmarBurmeseYes
Flag of PhilippinesCebuanoYes
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/MandarinNo
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/Mandarin with tonesYes
Flag of ChinaChinese/Yue (Cantonese)Yes
Flag of BangladeshChittagonianYes
Flag of AfghanistanDariYes
Flag of BhutanDzongkhaYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoYes
Flag of IranianFarsi (Persian)/UncontractedYes
Flag of PhilippinesFilipinoYes
Flag of GeorgianGeorgianYes
Flag of IndiaGujuratiYes
Flag of IndiaHaryanviYes
Flag of IsraelHebrew/Israeli UncontractedYes
Flag of the PhilippinesHiligaynonYes
Flag of IndiaHindiYes
Flag of PhilippinesIlokoYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemNo
Flag of IndonesiaIndonesianYes
Flag of JapanJapanese (Kana)Yes
Flag of IndiaKannadaYes
Flag of KazakhstanKazakh/UncontractedYes
Flag of CambodianKhmer (Cambodian)Yes
Flag of IndiaKirghizYes
Flag of South Korea Flag of North KoreaKoreanYes
Flag of Iraq Flag of Turkey Flag of Iran Flag of KurdishKurdishYes
Flag of IndiaKurukhYes
Flag of LaosLaoYes
Flag of IndiaMagahiYes
Flag of IndiaMaithiliYes
Flag of MalaysiaMalayYes
Flag of IndiaMalayalamYes
Flag of IndiaMarathiYes
Flag of IndiaMeitei (Manipuri)Yes
Flag of MongoliaMongolianYes
Flag of NepalNepaliYes
Flag of IndiaOriyaYes
Flag of Pakistan Flag of IndiaPanjabiYes
Flag of Pakistan Flag of AfghanistanPushtoYes
Flag of RussiaRussian/UncontractedYes
Flag of IndiaSadriYes
Flag of IndiaSanskritYes
Flag of IndiaSantaliYes
Flag of IndiaSindhiYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanSinhalaYes
Flag of IndiaSylhetiYes
Flag of the PhilippinesTagalogYes
Flag of TajikistanTajikYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanTamilYes
Flag of IndiaTeluguYes
Flag of ThailandThaiYes
Flag of ChinaTibetanYes
Flag of TurkeyTurkishYes
Flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenYes
Flag of IndiaUrdu/IndiaYes
Flag of PakistanUrdu/PakistanYes
Flag of UzbekistanUzbekYes
Flag of VietnamVietnamese/UncontractedYes


Flag(s)DBT Template NameBraille-to-Print
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaansYes
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaans (pre-Unified)No
Flag of EthiopiaAmharicYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)No
Flag of South AfricaEnglish/South African (pre-Unified)Yes
Flag of South Africa Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/UnifiedYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoYes
Flag of Ghana Flag of TogoÉwéNo
Flag of Nigeria Flag of NigerHausaYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemNo
Flag of NigeriaIgboNo
Flag of South Africa Flag of ZimbabweNdebeleNo
Flag of South AfricaNguniNo
Flag of SomaliaSomaliYes
Flag of South AfricaSotho (Southern or Northern (Pedi))No
Flag of Kenya Flag of TanzaniaSwahiliYes
Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandSwatiNo
Flag of EthiopianTigrinyaYes
Flag of Mozambique Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandTsongaNo
Flag of South AfricaTswanaNo
Flag of South AfricaVendaNo
Flag of South AfricaXhosaNo
Flag of NigeriaYorubaYes
Flag of South AfricaZuluNo


Flag(s)DBT Template NameBraille-to-Print
Flag of AustraliaEnglish/Australian (pre-Unified)Yes
Flag of Australia Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/UnifiedYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemNo

Secondary Languages within English/American

Each primary language table has some secondary languages which can be used with it. The secondary languages listed below are available while the English/American table is in use. Use the secondary language to translate passages of the foreign language within English text. The English text (the primary language) is translated using the regular English/American rules.

Flag of Netherlands Dutch
Flag of the United States Flag of Canada Flag of the United KingdomEnglish -- Religious
Flag of FinlandFinnish
Flag of FranceFrench
Flag of GermanyGerman
Flag of HawaiiHawaiian
Flag of ItalyItalian
Flag of Vatican CityLatin
New Zealand FlagMaori
Flag of Portugal Flag of BrazilPortuguese
Kenya Flag Tanzania FlagKiswahili (Swahili)
Flag of SpainSpanish
Flag of SwedenSwedish

Information about secondary languages available in other tables can be found by pressing the F1 Help key when reviewing the Translation Table menu (found in the DBT Document Menu). That is, if the highlight is on "English/Australian", and then you press F1, you get help and a list of Secondary Languages for "English/Australian."

The Language of the User Interface in the DBT Program

The Language of the User Interface means the language of the menus, prompts, and error messages when one uses Duxbury DBT. At present, DBT has been localized to a total of 6 languages which are displayed when you boot up the DBT CD-ROM. When DBT first boots up, it uses the Regional setting in the Control Panel to decide what User Interface Language to start in. After that, you can change the User Interface Language in DBT's Global, Internationalization menu.

Flag of the ChinaChinese
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzech
Flag of DenmarkDanish
Flag of the United States Flag of Canada Flag of the United KingdomFlag of AustraliaEnglish
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of Switzerland German
Flag of Italy Flag of Switzerland Italian
Flag of South Korean Flag of North KoreanKorean
Flag of NorwayNorwegian
Flag of PolandPolish
Flag of Portugal Flag of BrazilPortuguese
Flag of RussiaRussian
Flag of Spain Flag of MexicoSpanish
Flag of SwedenSwedish

The Language for the Help File in DBT

Using Google Translate and an internet connection, the DBT Help material is translated into many languages. While machine translation is not ideal, it does allow for the translation of fast changing material. Link to the Internet Edition of the DBT Help.

The Braille Font Used

When DBT displays braille dot patterns on the screen, the way this is done is usually not an issue to a user. But if the user is blind, and is using software like JAWS to drive a braille device to follow the screen, then the user very much wants the braille on the screen to match the braille on the braille display. This is only possible if the braille font the DBT uses matches the association between ASCII characters and braille cells used on the braille display.

DBT sends ASCII characters to drive different braille devices. Different devices and/or different regions use different systems to associate braille characters with ASCII characters. This is an area that is quite technical, and frustrating if it is not set up properly. However, virtually all braille devices made can work with the North American system, which is the default. Or the user can select another system in the Global, Internationalization menu.

DBT uses a file called display.cpt to link braille symbols with ASCII characters. To solve problems that cannot be handled using the existing choices, this table can be edited. Users who successfully modify this table for additional braille devices are request to email it to Duxbury systems so that others can also have access to additional braille device set-ups.

The System of Braille Formatting

Duxbury DBT contains a sophisticated and powerful suite of braille formatting commands derived from the requirements of American, British, French, and other braille formats. Duxbury Systems is working to make sure that its features meet the needs of braille around the world. No matter what braille system you work in, we believe there is a way to use DBT's commands to produce your desired format. If you have concerns that you do not think are being addressed in DBT, please contact Duxbury Systems. If possible, please, also supply an English translation of the relevant braille codebook sections to assist us in understanding your concerns.

The Duxbury Systems Website

Thanks to Google Translate, this website has been "customized" for many different languages. We know that machine translation is not the best approach. But machine translation keeps up with the changes we make to this website.

Language Support in your Computer

In order to view some scripts in Word documents, or in DBT files, please be careful about fonts and operating systems.

On a Windows XP machine, Latin Letters, Greek and Cyrillic scripts are viewable.

On a Windows XP machine, when you use the Control Panel, Regional Settings, Languages, and click the box for Right to Left Languages, you add support for Hebrew and Arabic.

On a Windows XP machine, when you use the Control Panel, Regional Settings, Languages, and click the boxes for Asian Language Support, you can add a number of Asian scripts.

A few scripts (Mandarin, Cantonese, Ethiopic, Khmer, Lao, Oriya, Sinhala, and Tibetan) are best viewed on a Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8 machine.

Myanmar (Burmese) script support requires Windows 8.

Duxbury Reachs Out to Meet Braille Needs Around the World

DBT 11.2 contains a very large number of improvements to the braille translators. In the fall of 2013, an article written by Duxbury Staff came out in the publication The Educator (see page 54 of the pdf). You can also read the article here as an html file.

This article describes the many ways that Duxbury Systems reaches out to help produce a braille translator in a new language. Much has happened since this was published. The collection of sample Word files now includes samples of 100 different languages. Duxbury DBT 11.2 SR1 has been released, so every project described in the article is now available on every new copy of Duxbury DBT that is sold or evaluated.

The article in The Educator points out the number of ways that users around the world can work with Duxbury Staff to improve Duxbury DBT. Contact us at:

Copyright Duxbury Systems, Inc. Thursday, February 27, 2014

Duxbury Systems, Inc. website